December 21, 2018: This section is available as a pdf-attachment to the final report of SEE THE GOAL. URL:

SEE THE GOAL partners Regina Lamscheck-Nielsen, Moeve aps, Denmark, and Anne-Maria Korhonen, HAMK, Finland, are working on processing the results of the trial runs into an article to be published in a scientific journal. The results are annalysed according to theoris of multimedia-based learning and according to translation theory. 

For interim results, several abstracts were elaborated and approved for various research symposia, resulting into workshops, such as at 

In practice, 2017-2018

The project partners have in each their own country and educational program conducted training and learning activities with videos of in-company learning outcomes.

The videos have been applied to practice in various ways:

In VET colleges When introducing the students to their learning outcomes for their forthcoming in-company training
Individually by students As a preparation before starting their training in a company
Individually by students Supporting self-assessment during or after the training in a company, by watching videos of in-company learning outcomes
Individually, pair-wise or group-wise by students Producing videos of in-company learning outcomes as a reflection on the learning process and possibly as a contribution to their portfolios
In training companies As a dialogue tool for trainer and student(s), regarding the professional content of the learning outcomes and as a joint reference framework for trainer and student(s)
By VET consultants as a focusing tool on the learning purpose of students´ in-company training periods

Trial runs of the videos in the countries: test persons and methods

Participants DK FI SI PT In total
STUDENTS in training company 14 4 5 116 228
STUDENTS in college 44 20 25 0
TEACHERS at college 2 3 5 2 12
CONSULTANTS, coordinators 4 see teachers 3 2 9
TRAINERS / training managers

2 training managers

8 trainers

1 3 2 16

The following methods have been used during or after trial running the videos in different practice settings:

  1. Observations of in-company training with the videos: Open observations, no or minimal interference of trial run, photos, notes and video-recording of statements
  2. Online questionnaire for students and trainers / managers: The same questionnaire was translated to local languages
  3. Personal interviews with students, trainers, teachers and consultants: Non-structured interviews as well as structured interview forms, adapted to local conditions

Trial runs of the videos in the countries: Local results

Summary of results across the 4 countries

The following data are summarized according to the target groups and according to the methods for data collection. The summarized results are verified by all partners.

 Target group

Cross-national results

Data STUDENTS, online survey













N = 196

The learning outcomes have become clear for the students via watching the videos (SI, DK, FI), respectively via producing the videos (PT):

Answers: 1 not at all …. 5 absolutely

Even more, the students appreciated (“liked”) the videos, with 66 % over average.

Answers: 1 not at all …. 5 absolutely

Other results confirmed a satisfying duration of the videos, which were composed differently and varied from trade to trade.

All in all, the results indicate that the videos make a positive difference in training and teaching practice. The quality of the videos seems to be satisfying for the students, in spite of amateurs having recorded. The authenticity of the recorded work processes omitted the technical quality.

The students recommended an extended use of videos in VET training as well as in teaching lessons before in-company training.

Data STUDENTS, observations








The observations of the trial runs brought additional information, such as quotations, impressions of group dynamics and the students´ responsiveness to the trainers´ methods.

When videos were watched in groups/classes, the students engaged actively in discussions, also with physical demonstrations of their own work processes.

The students related increasingly to the recorded learning outcomes and seemed to achieve more and more ownership for them, as the learning process was facilitated by the trainers or teachers. In PT, the students learnt very fast both the video production techniques and methods for communicating learning outcomes. Their enthusiasm and new skills omitted the organizers´ and the training managers´ expectations.

The students´ preferences varied, regarding watching the videos on their own or in groups. Individual watching was typically used for work instruction, while group watching was more used for assessment and self-assessment purposes.

In all cases, the students underlined their appreciation of personal dialogues and feedback from their trainers.

Data STUDENTS, personal interviews and observations














Students´ use of videos increased the understanding of their learning outcomes: “I have seen it, and now I remember it”. “There are many aspects in each learning outcome. It´s like a set of tenpins. watching the videos has increased my understanding”. “I have learnt how to decode the learning outcomes to achieve a better understanding”.

The moderate technical and promotional quality of the videos was overcome by their content: “This video is for learning, that´s the most important thing.” Even mistakes were tolerated, as these could contribute to reflection: “We all make mistakes, and I learn from her mistake” (in the video, ed.).

In general, the videos scored high for their authenticity: “It´s good to know, how my training will be”. Several students referred to the taxonomy of the learning outcomes and compared to their own performances: “I wonder, on which level she is (in the video, ed.), and when I will learn this.”

Students´ own production of videos (PT) is obviously highly motivating, indicated by students spending their leisure time on it. Video production also increased the understanding of the professional topic.

Many students underlined video as today´s learning tool:

“I check out first all work situations at YouTube. All. Even when I am doing my homework, first I check whether it is possible to find some material on YouTube. It is easier for me to understand the work process through ‘moving pictures’.”

Especially bilingual students indicated benefits.

On the other hand, not all students prefer video as the ultimate learning tool. Other learning styles were mentioned (books, papers) as preferred by some of the students, and especially the personal dialogues with the trainers seem to be highly valuable.

These preferences between the trades, and from student group to student group, but a dependency on age or gender could not be stated.

Data TEACHERS, personal interviews (online survey in Portugal)













Teachers had been intended to be a secondary target group for videos of in-company learning outcomes. But during the project, they became more involved, more engaged and more important.

Firstly, it seemed to be a challenge to integrate videos in curriculum-based lessons. Teachers mentioned their “tight schedules” and videos of in-company training representing not being their primary task. But when the videos were added to classroom lessons, added value could be stated for the students´ learning processes also at college.

When observing the positive impacts, Slovenian teachers suggested the implementation for college teaching, too. In Denmark and Finland, videos are already broadly used in teaching, where students also work with own video productions as learning products. Thus, many teachers are familiar with video methods, but not with videos of in-company training.

In Denmark the teachers reported that the students appreciated getting introduced to the learning outcomes via video before their in-company training. They started discussing professional details from the video-recorded situations, relating to the knowledge that they had obtained from theory lessons at the VET college. Thus, the fragile link between college and companies was strengthened.

  • In Finland, VET teachers are also responsible for the contact to the training companies. In this context, they indicated the supportiveness of making learning outcomes visible, as the students express written documents of Learning outcomes being quite di􀂣cult to understand. They seem to stay abstract and distant to practice. The learning outcomes are clearly shown in the videos, from real worklife demonstrating what students are going to do in every place during their on-the-job learning periods of visual merchandising.
  • In Slovenia, the teachers became closely involved in the entire video production process: outlining in-company learning outcomes, dialogue and recording with companies, implementing in teaching and improving the processes.
  • In Portugal, the teachers concluded that the videos brought added value to the learning process of the trainees, compared to learning processes without the videos. They recommended the use of videos as “a supplement to training manuals” and “for self-assessment of the trainees on the acquired knowledge”.

Data trainers / training managers: Personal interviews








The interviewed trainers and training managers all expressed their appreciation of the videos, but for different reasons:

In the trades of social & health as well as in business/visual merchandising, the training managers appreciated that videos could make personal and social competences explicit.

Furthermore, “the videos created a common framework” of individual work situations and learning processes, to be used in personal dialogues and feedback situations.

In industry and maintenance, the training managers pointed at several aspects:

  • The students showed far more personal involvement in their own development and learning than otherwise.
  • The videos helped to identify learning processes in work processes.

All trainers and training managers had to find a way to integrate the videos into the training and work processes, respectively a way how to support the learning processes with the videos. This challenge was solved differently in the different trades.

Data consultants: Personal interviews












The role of VET consultants varies widely between and even in the 4 countries. Many of the consultants have double roles. A common denominator is their position as a gear wheel, connecting VET colleges and students with training companies. This is often a work-loaded, individual position, with rare opportunity for experiments.

The consultants have a clear need for communication with their target groups. They were asked to trial run video technology, as a modern communication form. Due to their varying work tasks, the consultants used the videos differently:

  • in the acquisition process (SI, PT)
  • in the student-counseling process (DK, FI, SI)
  • in the company-counseling process, in various ways (SI, DK, FI, PT)
  • in the teacher-counseling process (DK, SI, FI)

It showed up that consultants not necessarily see a task in communicating in-company learning outcomes, and especially not by videos.

On the other hand, the videos received positive feedback from the consultants, where applied:

  • (SI) “Video is a very good tool to attract a lot of immediate attention. Video creates a stronger impression than the promotion through printed material.”
  • (DK) “The videos can help the students to get clear about, whether they have chosen the right educational program.”
  • (PT) “ Coordinators (consultants, ed.) are also lecturers for VET teachers. For this purpose, they can introduce video technology in order to empower teachers in assessing the students´ progression or supporting their self-assessment.”


In Denmark - social & health

The Danish piloting has mainly been undertaken in the educational program for care helpers, and in addition in the program for care assistants. In the following, the trial runs and their methods are outlined briefly one by one. The introductory summary reflects conclusions across the Danish trial runs, with both qualitative and quantitative results.

The conclusions from the survey (quantative questionnaires) are included into the summary.

Summary of Danish results


52 students participated in the trial runs. The students were in average 31 years old, covering an age span from 17 to 56. 67.7 % were on the level of the first 1.5 years of their educational program, while 21.2 % participated in the trial run during their first educational year. As typical for social & health, 85.6 % were female. All together, the students represented 32 public training companies.

General impression

Both training managers and more than 70 % of all students consider the duration, the content and the quality of the Danish videos ( ~ 5.5 min. / video) as satisfying or fully satisfying. The technical quality in general was estimated being acceptable, even when the quality of the speak obviously can be improved and a few students had difficulties in accessing the videos.

The videos were seen as being typical and broadly valid in the trade. 92.2 % of the students experienced the work situations as authentic or partly authentic. A few students wished the persons in the videos were “less stiff”, such as the body language of the “actors”. Other critic regarded professional issues. But as the trial runs showed, also professional disagreements led to learning effects for the students, as the training managers prompted them to reflect and come up with alternative solutions.

65.4 % of the students experienced the learning outcomes in the videos as being clear or very clear for them, while 28.8 % answered this question as being neutral. Only 3 students experienced unclarity. These figures can even be improved. But compared to the students´ experiences of the text-based learning outcomes, it can be concluded that the videos achieve a far higher rate of understandability.

When asked for, what they had learnt from the videos, the students came up with a long list of comments. A few of them:

  • “I have seen it visually and can now relate to it when reading my learning outcomes.”
  • “I have learnt how to break down the learning outcomes, so I can more easily understand them.”

Training method

The method – a faciltated group dialogue – seemed to be highly supportive for promoting the students´ learning processes, both students with and without training experiences. A training manager outlined the use of the videos in the commonly well-known reflection circle for training purposes. In all cases, the students related here to the theory, they had learnt at VET college.

The didactic for applying the videos seems to be decisive for the learning effect. A student about the group reflection process: “I would not have had the same output from the videos, when watching them alone.”

Videos as a joint reference framework

The training managers as well as the students underlined that the videos had given them a ´joint reference framework´ to relate to: “We all see the same situation”. This was experienced as valuable, as the videos very clearly outlined typical situations. This explicit visibility seemed to connect the students – no matter whether they agreed or disagreed on the professional solutions in the videos. All students got involved, when discussing professional aspects with each other, and some demonstrated their skills physically. All in all, the interaction seemed to strengthen the students´ reflection on their learning outcomes.

Learning outcomes and videos as added value

Independent from their age, most of the students underlined that they “understand and remember better”, when seeing a film, compared to reading a text. Naturally, the bilingual students expressed enthusiasm about the videos and their subtitles. Nevertheless, one student emphasized during the personal interview that she clearly preferred text-based learning materials; here it must be considered that this student already had graduated from a previous, more literacy-based education.

The students took notes, also in the sheets with their learning outcomes. Thus, the videos added value to the text source, supportive for new perceptions to come up during the training sessions.

All in all, it cannot be concluded that video is the preferred learning material for all students. But video is obviously appreciated by students and training managers, offering an additional value to the more conventional approaches in the trade.

Occupational conditions in ´social & health´

The videos and their use in practice are influenced by the conditions of the occupational field.

Social & Health is characterised by complex work and learning situations, each of them typically with both pratical, social and personal aspects for the learning outcomes. This complexity is often difficult to decode by students. From student interview: “There are many things in each learning outcome [from the official regulations, ed.]. It feels like a set of ninepins. Watching the videos has helped my understanding.”

Personal alertness and communication, attitudes and decision making as well as managing ethic questions are crucial elements in daily work. Thus, it is highly important to strengthen the students´ perception and reflection skills. The videos seemed to support this educational task.

The students´ preference for video-based learning rather than text-based learning, can possibly be related to many social & health students´ more practical background, visual skills and memory, compared to their preference for abstract thinking.

Trial run (4): Apprentices and training manager, Lejre Kommune, March 2018

The trial run was conducted with a focus group of students, duration: 2 hours.

Target group: 7 recently started apprentices, from 4 different training companies (nursing homes); educational program for care helper; all female, age 28 – 52 in a regular spread; 4 of them with immigrant background (Brazil, Uganda, Thailand, Ukraine) with slightly limited Danish language skills.


The very experienced training manager (TM) used the training method “Reflection Circle” for this trial run. This method supports the students´ reflection on their learning results and opens up for new insights. The method, which is commonly wellknown and broadly implemented in training practice of social & health, was adapted to the use of videos.

(1) Presentation of 2 videos + group discussion, with the students´ comments on the professional content of the videos.
(2) Group dialogue on the learning-supporting purpose.
(3) Observation by project faclitator.
(4) Supplementing evaluation methods: Fully structured online questionnaire and short video recordings of individual statements by the students and TM.



Results and conclusions

The students expressed a high degree of involvement. They immediately started discussing the content of the videos and interacted with each other on their professional conclusions. Some of them repeated some of the physical activities from the videos and explained their skills by demonstrating them physically.
The students took notes during the videos and the dialogues, also adding to their sheet with learning outcomes. The interaction among the students increased over the 2 hours.

All students expressed that the videos had created a framework for new insights:

  • Increased understanding through visualisation: Several students underlined that they “understand better”, when seeing a film, compared to reading a text or listening to a message.
  • A more holistic understanding: According to the students, the videos illustrate complex situations with several learning outcomes, depending on each other.
  • Errors and improvement: The students discovered professional mistakes in the videos. This did not make them reject the videos. In contradiction: “We are all human beings, and we can make mistakes, as we see in the film. We just have to recognise and to improve them.”

The output of the learning dialogue seems to depend on the method and the competences of the trainer / training manager. A video in itself can obviously not initiate the same considerations and reflections, as coming up during a facilitated dialogue. Student: “I wouldn´t have identified all these learning outcomes, if I only had watched the video by myself.”

The training method ´reflection circle´ worked very well for the given purpose. According to TM, the videos add value: “With the videos all students relate to the SAME situations, and they can see them. Normally we spend a long time clarifying, which kind of situations the students have experienced.” 

After the trial run, TM idea-generated the further development for her training at the workplace:

“I think, I will not use more than one of the videos for each dialogue session with the students. There are enough learning outcomes in each video to cover an entire training session.” […] “I will elaborate a sequence for when to apply which video. Some of them make more sense in the beginning, and some more later on during the students´ training periods.” […] “My idea for our next step is that students start producing videos themselves. This can be suitable for their logbooks: a video logbook!”

The conclusions from the quantative questionnaires are included into the summary, see above. 

Trial run (2 and 3): Students and teachers, VET college ZBC, February 2018

These 2 trial runs were conducted at the VET college ZBC (departments Holbæk respectively Næstved).

  • Duration: 1 lesson for each class, 45 minutes
  • Target groups: 2 classes of in total 45 students from the educational program for Care Helpers, before the first period with in-company training. Normally, the teachers introduce the students to their upcoming in-company learning outcomes in other ways.

Method (the same for the 2 classes)

(1) Presentation of one of the Danish videos in each class, undertaken by the college´s media librarians and supported by the teachers. The students referred to the written list of learning outcomes while watching the videos.
(2) Feedback from students on the content and the quality of the videos.(3) Evaluation method: Fully structured online questionnaire.

Results and conclusions

The students were engaged in the process, and they appreciated being introduced to the learning outcomes via video before their in-company training.

It was striking that the students immediately started discussing professional details from the video-recorded situations. The discussions were based on the knowledge that they had obtained from theory at their VET college.

The conclusions from the quantative questionnaires are included into the summary, see above. 

 Trial run (1): Apprentices and training manager, Stevns Kommune, Sept. 2017

The trial run was conducted with a focus group of students:

  • Duration: 2 hours
  • Target group: 7 recently started apprentices, everyone from each their training company (nursing homes); educational programmes care helper and care assistant; 5 women, 2 men; age 19 – 51 in a regular spread; 1 recently immigrated with still limited Danish language skills


(1) Presentation of the 3 videos + group discussion + individual feedback on the professional content of each of the videos; conducted as a learning dialogue by the very experienced training manager (TM).
(2) Group dialogue on the learning-supporting purpose and the quality of the videos.
(3) Observation by project faclitator and VET consultant from VET college.
(4) Supplementing evaluation methods: Fully structured online questionnaire and short videos of individual statements from students and from TM, recorded by the project facilitator


All students and TM indicated the supportivity of making learning outcomes visible. The students experienced the learning outcomes as written documents being very difficult to understand, if at all. These learning outcomes seem to stay abstract and distant to practice.

The students expressed questions on their own “professional level” (taxonomy), which became explicit when comparing with the apprentice acting in the videos.

TM used specific examples from the videos to open questions on professional topics. These examples initiated broader discussions of topics like conflict management or the students´ personal roles in professional situations. TM concluded that the videos had created “a reference framework” for what the learning outcomes were about. Thus, TM could be more sure about the students´ pictures of the learning outcomes.

According to the students, the videos need no media hype, because they are made for “concentrated learning purpose”. The focus group addressed the content of the videos in a way, that their generic character was confirmed, and a certain timeless relevance could be stated.

Additional survey to trial run (1): personal interviews, January 2018

3 of the students from trial run (1) with different profiles were interviewed personally. These interviews should show, whether the students experienced a positive difference by having watched the videos. Download fully structured interview template. Duration: 1/2 hour per student.

The 3 students were (A.) 21, (B.) 32 and (C.) 54 years old. B. had previously completed a more litteracy-based VET program, while C. had many years of experience in social & health as an unskilled worker.

Results and conclusion

2 of the students clearly preferred the videos as an introduction to the learning outcomes, rather than text. The third student (B), was more reluctant. She could see that other students might prefer videos as a communication channel, but she expressed that she herself would learn best via text-based materials and writing.

Trial run (5): VET consultants, May – August 2018

4 VET consultants from different VET colleges in Denmark were presented for the videos and interviewed with a semi-structured interview form (in English).

The consultants pointed at various potential ways to apply the videos for strengthening learning effects of students / apprentices:

  • Preparation of young students on work life in individual guidance
  • Support of learning dialogues with students in training companies
  • Facilitated exchange among students in the classroom after their in-company training periods 
  • Introduction of new training companies to training tasks

These results are processed in the Guide for VET consultants.

In Finland - business & administration

The Finnish trial runs relate to the occupation and educational program of Visual Merchandising. Finland has planned 5 trial runs:

  1. Training-experienced students from different training companies, conducted at VET college
  2. Training manager
  3. VET teachers
  4. VET students before their first apprenticeship period
  5. VET consultants

Trial run (1): Training-experienced students, Oct. 2017

This trial run was undertaken in October 2017 with 4 apprenticeship students from different training companies.


The Finnish trial run was conducted with a focus group of students:

  • Duration: 1 hour.
  • Target group: 4 recently started apprenticeship students: 3x business & administration studies, vocational upper secondary qualification; 1x further vocational qualification in the area of selling.
    2 test persons will conduct the competence test for visual merchandising.
  • Age 17-29 years, 2 woman, 2 men.
  • Place: VET college Tavastia, during a lesson.

The 3 videos were presented first to the whole group in front of the class. Hereafter each of the test persons watched them also via their smartphones. After this the whole group discussed about the videos first in a general way.
In the following each student gave individual feedback via the SEE THE GOAL fully structured online questionnaire.
The teacher was as observator, but did not intervene.


All 4 students consider the length of the Finnish videos (~3 min.) being just fine. Having the non-homogeous group in mind, one test person did not like the videos, as he does not have a concrete view on and no tasks regarding visual merchandising at his job.
One test person suggested to improve the sound quality of the videos.
The technical quality in general, such as choice of space, was considered to be all right.
All test persons would recommend to watch these videos before and during the work-learning period and also during the school-working period.
According to the test-group the videos’ content is satisfying, compared to the Finnish national qualification requirements mentioned for visual merchandising. The customer-oriented approach is applied, showing how to create a successful and visually tempting well-selling areas.

Trial run (4): 16 students before their first apprenticeship period, Nov. 2017


  • Duration: 1 hour
  • Target group: 16x 2nd year students, right after having studied the theory of visual merchandising, going to go to practice these skills on-the-job learning period in spring 2018. 10 women, 6 men, age 17-19, 1 immigrant student with advanced Finnish language skills. Proces:

(1) Presentation of the 3 videos
(2) Group dialogue on the learning-supporting purpose and the quality of the videos
(3) Observation by project facilitator (= the teacher and VET consultant at Tavastia VET College)
(4) Supplementing evaluation methods: Fully structured online questionnaire
The whole trial run was conducted as a learning dialogue by the two teachers (SEE THE GOAL project worker and the teacher). Tavastia offers a toolkit-paper that helps to understand the learning outcomes for visual merchandising. This paper was discussed with students during this subjects’ lessons. The project worker asked opinions of these videos, which initiated a wide discussion mostly about the technical aspects of the videos.


All students and the teacher indicated the supportivity of making learning outcomes visible. The students experienced the learning outcomes as written documents being quite difficult to understand. These learning outcomes seem to stay abstract and distant to practice.

The learning outcomes are clearly shown in the videos. They are from a real worklife as what students are going to do in every place during their on-the-job learning periods of visual merchandising. Nevertheless, visual merchandising is also a lot more than the recorded work situations, and others are not shown in these videos. Thus, the representativity may be low.

The length of the videos was considered being good. Aspects to take care of for future productions:

  • The quality of the speak can be improved (wireless microphones)
  • The texts should be seen longer.
  • The music should ba faded as the next part is changing, and transitions should be faded out inperceptidly
  • Black background for texts is not suitable
  • The lightning was changing too much every now and then
  • Perspectivity should be used more to help students understand the cases there is something to fix (zooming)

Proposal: Add a “before and after” picture at the end of the video, summarizing the learning outcomes, supported by a speak.

In Portugal - car maintenance

The Portuguese partner CCLA/DUAL has worked with the student-producing approach. Portugal has conducted the following trial runs:

  1. 22 students from the first video-producing workshop
  2. Teachers and students in various classes as a preparation for in-company training, in total 94 trainees

Trial run (1): Apprentices from training companies, autumn 2017

The first trial was conducted by trainees, who recorded and edited videos of in-company learning outcomes and for learning purposes. 2 workshops for the trainees were held, one in Lisbon and another one in Porto, to aquire information and skills about recording and editing videos.


  • Duration: Workshop of 1 day in Lisbon and Porto, theory and recording one video; the following weeks recording and editing the other videos
  • 22 trainees in total from Lisbon and Porto
  • Age 15- 20 years, 21 boys and 1 girl
  • Place: DUAL Training Centres and Training Companies

In total 8 films were recorded of different work situations and learning outcomes. The trainees worked autonomously, supported by the coordinator/teachers of the DUAL Centre and the tutors in the training company.


Regarding the trainees who recorded the videos, they considered recording situations that represented the profession (60.6%), situations typically of a normal work day and situations difficult to explain in words.

When asked how hard it was to record and edit videos, most respondents replied that it was “neither easy” or “difficult”. Regarding how much they liked to produce the video, they were practically unanimous saying that they liked it. With the filming of the videos they learned “camera positions, image improvements and to edit videos”. The trainees presented suggestions like “Furtherdevelop each theme filming in the video “.

Regarding the trainees who recorded the videos, they considered recording situations that represented the profession (60.6%), situations typical of a normal work day, situations difficult to explain in words and among others.

Trial run (2): Students at training centres

The second trial run was conducted by the coordinators/teachers in the DUAL Centre´s in Lisbon and Porto. The videos were presented by teachers during the lessons, projected on a screen and the trainees watching as a group.


  • Duration: 1 hour
  • Target group: Trainees in the first year of professional vocational training in the DUAL Centre´s Lisbon and Porto
  • Age 15- 20 years, male and most of them 15 years (23.7%) or 16 years (30%) old
  • Place: DUAL Training Centre´s Lisbon and Porto

The survey was completed by 94 trainees, who recently had started their professional vocational training as car mechatronics, with the first 6 month at the theoretical part of the vocational training in a DUAL Centre. After that part they would start with the in-company training.  Most of the trainees were in the first year of professional vocational training (76,3%). The videos were presented by the teachers during the lessons and the most recurrent form was projecting on a screen, with the trainees watching together as a group (67,5%). There were also trainees, who watched the videos individually via computer (22,5%), smartphone (13,8%) or tablet. For the trainees the access to the films, using these new technologies, was easy (38,8%) or very easy (58,8%).

In general, the trainees liked the videos and underlined that “they could hear their colleagues talking” and that the duration of the videos was adequate. As suggestions for improvement the trainees proposed shortening the videos’ duration, and at the same time to develop more topics covered in the videos and improving their quality.

When the trainees watched the videos, they recognized the tasks that are part of their professional training (58,8%) as well, as also other work situations. The learning outcomes transmitted in the videos were clear for the trainees. The videos showed to the trainees’ different ways of working and new tasks that are part of their professional training. Most of the trainees recommended the visualization of videos for learning purposes, “before in-company training” (66,3%), “during the in-company training”, “as supplement to the logbook” and “self-assessment of the own development”.


It can be concluded that the trainees considered the videos reflected well the reality of in-company training. Via this visualization, the other trainees or future trainees will get a different perception of the reality, regarding in-company training and the profession.


The teachers who filled in the questionnaire were all female, aged between 42 and 46 years. Being part of DUAL Lisbon and Porto, these teachers have more than 10 years of experience in professional vocational training. They are also responsible for the apprenticeship classes and teach partly the theoretical mechanical lessons for the car mechatronic classes.

They considered that the access to the videos is very easy and that the duration is acquired, as one of the reasons, why in general the appreciation of the videos is so positive. From the teachers´ point of view, light and sound were well achieved and attributed a general level of “advanced amateur level” to the videos.

The videos reflected the objectives as being relevant, and the situations could be recognized from practice. The teachers considered the videos to be valid nationally and some of them to be easily used in the respective educational program. They used the videos during their classes as follows: “Presentation” (66,7%), “leaving the students reflect individually or in a small group”, “as support in reflection, a dialogue between the tutor and the student” and “trainees make their own experiences in record videos considering the project’s videos SEE THE GOAL”.


The teachers concluded that the videos brought added value to the learning process of the trainees, compared to learning processes without videos. They recommended the method to other teachers, using as: “A supplement to training manuals” and “to self-assessment of the trainees on the acquired knowledge”.

In Slovenia - industry

Timeline and target groups for trial runs

Conducted in the period December 2017 – June 2018 with different target groups:

  • students (before and after in-company training),
  • in-company mentors,
  • school teachers,
  • curricula expert for educational program Industrial Mechanic from institute of the republic of Slovenia for vocational education and training (CPI),
  • VET experts from Institute of the republic of Slovenia for vocational education and training (CPI).

Occupational conditions for Industrial Mechanic

The videos and their use in practice are influenced by the conditions of the occupational field.
While preparing working situations for shooting videos we follow some basic work fields of Industrial Mechanic. Since we don’t have learning outcomes for in-company training described at national level, the design of work fields in this project also serves as a contribution to the preparation of a national catalogue of practical training for educational programme Industrial mechanic. The basis for preparation of these fields were some national documents, such as occupational standard and catalogues for professional modules (list of competences) for Industrial Mechanic.  The following work fields for Industrial Mechanic were presented in videos:

  • Making simple mechanical assemblies of mechatronic systems;
  • Installation and disassembly of mechatronic systems;
  • Wiring and measurements of electrical installations;
  • Monitoring the hardware and software of the mechatronic systems;
  • Machine operating working task;
  • Maintenance of mechatronic systems.

With working situations presented in videos, we try to cover completely educational programme, while it depends from company to company what kind of working tasks students at in-company training do. It is possible that in one company students are doing just tasks from one working field, since the workflow of the company is very specific (for example they do just wiring and measurements of electrical installations). That means that complexity of working conditions vary form company to company, due to different technology and different purpose of the company (production of simple mechatronical systems, production of complex mechatronical systems, automatization and robotics …) and may also very between different job positions for Industrial Mechanic inside one company.

Evaluation with students

Stage 1: Trial runs with students before they went on in-company training

Timeline The trial runs were undertaken in December 2017.

At this trial runs 25 students participated, aged mostly 17 and 18 years. All the students attend vocational secondary education for Industrial Mechanic.

During the school lessons, teacher, which is also practical training at workplace organizer, prepared students for the evaluation. Teacher explained to them the purpose of the videos, what they represent, and warned them, what they should pay attention to during the projection. Before the projection they discussed the working situations that should be carried out by the Industrial Mechanic at the workplace and studied various work situations.
A viewing of videos followed on the group projection and individually (through smartphones, tablets and computers). While watching videos, teacher warned them of certain important segments.
Students get links to an evaluation form, which they go through together with teacher to check the comprehensibility of questions. After that student fill in the questionnaire individually.
After completing the evaluation, the group conversation was made to review the responses and exchange views.
Students also received instructions on how to present videos to the mentor in the company and how to prepare the mentor for evaluation.

Students’ responses on the technical part was mostly in favour of videos. Regarding the duration of videos, mostly respondents think that is optimal, only few (app. 15%) think it could be longer. Respondents mostly like videos and don’t have proposals for their improvement.
Second part of evaluation process is connected to the content of the videos. Most of respondents (92%) recognize working situations in videos as totally genuine or as partly genuine, and only minority (8%) as not genuine. More than a half students (64%) recognize working situations from their own in-company training, although they have in-company training in last school year just for one or two weeks, what is very positive reaction.  Most students respond that goals of in-company training that are presented in videos are clear (72% respondents choose answer totally clear or clear).
Most of students say: “It would be great to have such videos also for school subjects.”

Stage 2:  Trial runs with students after the in-company training

Timeline May 2018

At this stage, 24 students participated (17 years old). All the students attend vocational secondary education for Industrial Mechanic. The debate was conducted in the light of their practical training at workplace few days ago.

In the course of the pedagogical hours, we prepared the preparation for the evaluation with the students. We discussed with the students and write down some their opinions, suggestions.

  • Students’ opinions
    “For me, the most useful video at practical training was Safety at work. We already saw it in school and we watched it also in the company. I guess that kind of general content could be useful in other companies too. Other videos show us more generally content and that content is not necessarily always the same as our work in the company. Usually we get to know only one or two work situations there (like on video). It depends from company to company.”
  • “With in-company trainer we watched videos. At the end of each week he sit down and discuss with me for few minutes (what do I think, how it looks like in reality,..). He tried very hard to find me almost all work situations in their company that we watched it at videos. How useful are videos after my practical training? I do not know – probably I will refresh memory on work I have done in company.”
  • “All work situations I check out first at YouTube. All. Even when I am doing my homework, first I check if is possible to find some material on YouTube. It is easier for me to understand work process throw ‘moving pictures’. My colleagues thinks same. So I think your videos are very useful and welcome for students.”
  • “Videos are useful at all stages of the study. I want to see more that kind of learning material. For future, you could include more details. However, that does not mean to make longer videos. Shorter versions are good.”
  •  “Videos are good idea. I would suggest you to make videos also for continuing education (+2 years).”
  •  “I watch everything on YouTube – for school or for private use. Everything I am interested in I check out there. That is why I like your short videos too. In-company trainer did not want to watch it first – ‘It will took to much of my time’, he said. After we watched two of them, he became more and more interested. From that time each morning, we watched videos for few minutes and discuss about it. Mostly I love this comparing between school and company – at video everything is filmed step by step. In company, we were involved in a lot of ‘complications’, riddles, etc. I think both parts are very important for us – preparation on work with videos and also real work.”

Evaluation with in-company mentors

Timeline  March – June 2018

Participants 2 in-company mentors, aged approx. 40-45 years.

Mentors get a link to videos and an evaluation form and were asked to give the feedback on videos. Students received instructions on how to present videos to the mentor in the company and how to prepare the mentor for evaluation. Mentors, together with students in the company, watched the videos and filled out an evaluation form. A personal evaluation followed with selected mentors in the form of interviews.

In-company mentors thinks the videos are technically very well prepared. Their comment is: “Videos are useful and welcome, but mostly for showing in classrooms.” Their employees are under high time pressure with showing their own results on projects, so their motivation to work with students is differently. But they admit this videos are good learning tool and one of them is thinking he will show videos also to generation of students next year.
One mentor said the videos could be also good promotion material for new employees or for creating social responsible reputation of company, but he is not the one who could comment it or have any influence on it. He will present this idea on next business meeting with PR and marketing service.

Evaluation with teachers

Communication with teachers of the professional modules has taken place since the beginning of the project. They have been intensively involved in the design of work tasks. When we did this, we also invited them to make corrections and comment on the written scenarios. After recording days in companies, some of them looked at raw videos and suggested improvements, which we later solved with some purchased videos online. Other teachers reviewed intermediate working drafts of the videos and commented on them. We also conducted personal interviews after the release of the modified videos and received some good guidelines for further work. The summery of their suggestions is described bellow:

  • creating only short videos, less than 3 minutes – students are not interest in longer material;
  • put some questions at the end of each video (to verify understanding);
  • write questioner for each video (for student homework).

Evaluation with VET experts from CPI

Date 24th August 2018

Participants 10 VET experts from CPI

10 VET experts from CPI got acquainted with the project SEE THE GOAL. Some of them had contributed to the Slovenian version of the Guide for VET consultants, as well as to the English version of the Guide for in-company trainers. Some of them also participated in the national dissemination conference, March 2018.
Links to the videos, as well as to both Guides (for VET consultants and in-company trainers), had been sent to all partners in advance in order for them to read and evaluate the videos on their own.
During the meeting, the project SEE THE GOAL was presented, including the process of making videos: from defining learning outcomes to describing them, as well as writing scripts and filming. We also exposed different aspects and approaches. After a presentation, a guided discussion about the videos took place. After that, the Guides were introduced: how they were prepared and which topics they include. Finally, a guided discussion followed.

The experts watched a series of videos as a supporting tool to learning and videos need to be adjusted to the context and written learning outcomes. The experts also saw the videos as a way of communication that is closer to young people and, hence, more attractive for them. Videos can facilitate the presentation of complex learning outcomes and can become a strong tool for communication, learning and evaluation. They can also be used also for the promotion of specific professions. In general, it seems important that videos include elements of “humanity”, so that they are not shown only technically, and that they present certain unified technical elements: appropriate length and sound, clear graphics, well-edited subtitles, if required, etc.
Participants also pointed out their concern regarding the portability of videos among countries and within professions, such as the existence of different levels of complexity of the shown videos. In addition, they mentioned that the videos should be pedagogically interesting and helpful, reaching a balance between the quality of the finalized videos and production opportunities, notably because video production could eventually become part of the learning process in schools.